Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

Type IV Hypersensitivity


The sporadic disorder known as Stevens-Johnson syndrome affects the skin and mucous membranes. It is a serious condition frequently brought on by an infection or a drug reaction. It is a type IV hypersensitive cutaneous adverse reaction, or SCAR. The illness starts with flu-like symptoms. Nevertheless, it transforms into an agonizing reddish or purplish rash (Canavan, Mathes, Frieden, & Shinkai, 2015). As the skin heals, the blisters that form as the rash progresses to cause the skin to die and shed off. Similar to genesis, the illness can affect both children and adults.


Epidemiology and aetiology

The most common reason for Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a drug reaction. However, an infection is another potential explanation. Allopurinol, painkillers such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen, sulfa antibiotics, and medications for seizures or mental illness are the leading causes of gout in adults. Sulfa antibiotics and carbamazepine are two medicines that may exacerbate the illness in children (treatment for seizures). There are few epidemiological studies on Stevens-Johnson syndrome. However, a global population-based analysis found that the incidence ranged from 1.0 to 6.0 per million people worldwide (Micheletti et al., 2018). The rarity of the ailment explains why there are few statistics on its frequency and prevalence.


Multiple Diagnoses

For a treatment to be successful, a proper diagnosis is essential. Because the patient is not critically unwell in the early stages of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, it is feasible to make a mistaken diagnosis. Therefore, medical professionals should be on the lookout for diseases in patients who have target lesions and mucous membrane rashes. To distinguish between other reactions and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, doctors should be aware of the different adverse cutaneous reactions to medications. Toxic epidermal necrolysis is one of the disorders that doctors may mistake for the syndrome, according to Paulmann and Mockenhaupt (2015). (TEN). Both medication reactions are severe, and the fatality rate is around 30%. Given the similarity of the two diseases, erythema multiforme may be the primary differential diagnosis for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Pustulosis is yet another instance of desquamation (Paulmann & Mockenhaupt, 2015).

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