SK299 Human Biology

Table of Contents


Write about Human tissues, systems and other topics.

The stomach is made up of tissues

1) Use the attached diagram to distinguish and explain the terms Cells Tissues Organs And Systems.

2) Discuss and explain that some organs are part of more than one system, and their function is dependent on which system they are in.

(3) Define how temperature affects the growth and development of bacteria

4) Describe and explain one common physiological property of bacteria, such as toxin formation or respiration.


1: Cells and Tissues. Organs and Systems.

The smallest unit in life, cells, is an independent unit that is composed of a cell membrane and genetic material. Cells can also be called cell walls (in plants).

It is the main structural and functional unit that forms the human body’s complex structure.

There are two types of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

There are two types of cells: prokaryotes or eukaryotes.

Prokaryotic cells are primitive, like bacteria, cells that consist of cell membrane, genetic material, and simple cell organelles.

The eukaryotic cells, on the other hand, are more structured. Complex cell orgenelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts can be found in these cells. In some cases, nuclear materials are contained within the compartment, while in others they may have additional protective layers beyond the cell membrane.

Eukaryotic cells make up the majority of the human body (Baquero and Nombela 2012).

Most cells within a tissue work together to fulfill a specific physiological function in the human body.

To make an organ, two or more tissues can work together in a collaborative fashion. Two or more organs will work together to achieve a common goal.

An example can help you understand the process and how they relate to each other.

Tissue is made up of a variety of cells that work together towards the same function.

There are four main types of tissue: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.

Epithelial tissue consists of thinly packed cells that cover the surfaces of organs and cavities.

The lining of the stomach, for example, is made up of columnar epithelium (epithelial tissue in column shape), which acts as a barrier against fluids and infectious organisms (Sherwood 2015).

Another type of tissue is muscle tissue, or muscle fibers.

Smooth muscle tissue is a type found in stomach. It is located in the walls of the digestive tract and helps in pushing food through the digestive tract in an involuntary manner.

Connective tissue is another type of tissue that supports and connects to other tissues.

Blood, for example, is loose connective tissue with a fluid matrix (known as plasma), which supports digestion by transporting absorbed nutrients and oxygen to each cell.

The nerve tissue, also known as nervous tissue, is responsible for sensing stimuli. It is made up of nerve cells and neurones that transmit signals to the CNS which controls digestion (Pocock Richards & Richards 2013, 2013).

Organs are made up of various types of tissues. Each organ serves a specific purpose. For example, heart circulates blood throughout the body, stomach aids in digestion, pancreas releases digestive juices, and rectum facilitates the excretory process.

An organ system is composed of multiple organs that work together to perform a similar function. These organs include the digestive system (circulation system), muscular system, nervous system and reproductive system as well as the excretory system, nervous systems, nervous system and nervous system.

Because pancreas, stomach, and other organs are all involved in digestion, they make up the digestive system (Stanfield 2012).

2: Relationship between Organ Functions and Body System

The human body is made up of many different structures that work together to provide all of the biological and physiological functions necessary for survival and growth.

Each organ’s function is affected if it malfunctions.

The human body has many levels of structural organization.

From the simplest form of cells to the most complex organ system, the human body is made up of different levels of structural organization.

Each organ system of the human body has its own unique hierarchy.

Cell is the basic unit of structural organization.

The pluripotent and multipotent stem cells can differentiate into different types of cells during the development phase.

These cells are restricted to a specific type of cell or tissue after differentiation.

These unipotent cells form a specific tissue type.

These unipotent cells are able to accomplish similar functions in a specific organ system (Jenkins & Tortora 2011, 2011).

The digestive system is responsible for digesting food and providing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and water to cells. It also completes physiological functions.

The digestive system includes the mouth, stomach, esophagus and diaphragm. It also contains the liver, small and large intestinale, pancreas, pancreas, stomach, spleen, stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, pancreas, and spleen.

All of these organs are involved in digestion.

These organs are composed of tissues and cells that aid in digestion.

These organs, while fulfilling their respective functions, also facilitate the function of nearby organs in the system.

The digestive juices released by the stomach and pancreas help facilitate the process of breaking down complex molecules to simpler ones, thus facilitating the function of the whole organ system (Park & Ahima 2015).

3: The Effect of Temperature on Bacteria Growth

The temperature is an important external factor that can significantly affect the growth of bacteria.

The temperature in which the bacteria pool lives determines its nature and function.

The temperature is used to classify bacteria.

There are three types of bacteria: thermophiles (mesophiles) and psychrophiles (psychrophiles).

Thermophiles are capable of living at temperatures above 50oC and can tolerate extreme conditions.

These organisms can live in hot springs, deep under the oceans, or in hot rocks.

The psychrophiles, on the other hand can grow at temperatures as low as -5oC with a maximum temperature of 10-20oC.

Their growth is affected by high temperatures.

Mesophiles, on the other hand, grow at a normal temperature (i.e.

The temperature ranges from 20 to 40 degrees Celsius.

These are the most important human pathogens as well as beneficial microorganisms.

All normal flora found in stomach or gut are mesophiles, which can grow at human body temperature (Park and Ahima 2015).

Exceptions to H. Pylori, however, most organisms can’t survive in stomach due to the high acidity.

4: Physiological property of Bacteria

Bacteria is a unicellular microorganism. All of its biological functions, which are essential for survival, can be performed in a single cell.

In bacteria, the process of respiration can be done in either presence or absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic bacteria is a group of bacteria that requires oxygen to respire. The aerobic bacteria are those bacteria which require oxygen.

Facultative anaerobes are bacteria that are not actually aerobic but can survive in anaerobic oxygen deprivation.

Glycolysis is the first step in respiration. This involves the breakdown of sugar molecules to make pyruvate or ATP.

These products are used to produce ATPs in kreb’s cycling, which then gives rise to ATPs. This is done with the aid of proton gradient.

In the absence of oxygen, however, pyruvate can be used in fermentation to produce organic acid or carbon dioxide (Tille 2013, 2013).

Refer to the Reference List

The microbiome is a human organ.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection 18(s4): 2-4.

Medical microbiology.

Human physiology.

Oxford university press.

Human physiology: From cells to systems.

Principles of human physiological science.

Pearson Higher Ed.

Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology E-Book.

Anatomy and biology.

Physiology and function of leptin.

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