Discuss the Pharmacological Mathematics for administering medication.
Definition of Pharmaceutical Mathematics
Pharmaceutical Mathematics refers to the use of measurement and calculation tools to prepare, prescribe and administer medication.
There are three main mathematical approaches that can be used in pharmacy: quantitative analysis, statistical analysis, and algebraic equations.
Pharmacological mathematics allows pharmacists to determine the percentage of an ingredient that is needed to make a medication mix. (Prasacu & Mircioiu 2013, Mircioiu, 2013).
History/ Introduction to Pharmaceutical Mathematics
The use of mathematical calculations in pharmacy sciences is one of the most promising areas for research and study.
A person may have a great knowledge of pharmacy, but he will not be able to use that knowledge in the real world.
In order to provide the best patient care possible in any pharmacy environment, accurate calculations are essential.
All technicians are responsible for this.
Although pharmaceutical calculations are not overly important, they still require perfect accuracy.
Correct calculations can lead to better outcomes for patients. Better methods of treatment and prevention will inform the best efforts for optimizing patient care.
It is important that professionals are able to do a variety of calculations in order to efficiently prepare and dispense medications.
It is important to be aware of potential patient harm if a dosage calculation error is made.
Professionals need to be able to use calculation methods in practice and have a good understanding of them.
The process of learning pharmaceutical is one that is step by step. Each step depends on the next.
To support all of the knowledge gathered, a solid foundation is required. This is often based on a good understanding of basic mathematical calculations.
Technicians should have a solid understanding of basic math like addition, subtraction and division. They also need to be familiar with metric conversions and similar forms of calculation.
This includes knowledge of the traditional weight system that apothecaries use, known as the apothecary method, as well as basic household measurements.
The mathematic calculations that are most commonly used are Roman and Arabic Numerals as well as Fractions and Decimals, Ratios and proportions.
Applications of Pharmaceutical Maths before 2010
Many of the most important characteristics of mathematics are shared with other major scientific disciplines, including pharmaceutical.
Many researchers consider medicine an important area in which mathematics can be applied.
Pharmacy is a field where mathematics is used to design the modifications in targeted therapies.
Before 2010, pharmaceutical mathematics was used in the following areas: temperature conversions, working on prescriptions, basic medication calculations and basic infusion calculations. Also, calculations for billing compounds, pharmacy maths, parenteral dosage calculations and pharmacy business maths were all common.
Because medications must be stored at the same temperature, temperature scale conversions are used to adjust the temperature.
Celcius and Fahrenheit are the two most common temperatures used for this purpose.
To decode the vital information contained in prescriptions, calculations were required.
This included information about medication preparation, dosage regimen, and administration.
It was intended to simplify the drug nomenclature.
For the calculation of dosages when administering medication in tablet, capsule, or liquid form, basic concepts of mathematics were used.
Also, the percentage of the strength of the medication was calculated.
Basic infusion calculations were used to calculate the strength of the medication, infusion rates, and dosages based on the patient’s weight.
This purpose was widely served by the ratio-proportion method.
For billing compounds, the calculations had previously taken into account cost of ingredients, dispensing fees, and time.
As a result pharmacists could participate in the financial aspects pharmacy dispersal or exchange.
The pharmacy business maths enabled pharmacists to develop the art of pharmacy, and manage inventory purchasing and receipt at the point of turnover.
For the administration of medication through routes other than the GI tract, parenteral dosage calculations were performed (Langley & Perrie 2014).
Advancement of Pharmaceutical Maths between 2010 and 2017
In the past seven years, pharmaceutical mathematics has undergone a major transformation.
There have been many significant developments in pharmaceutical mathematics that have led to the development of pharmaceutical science.
It is common for pharmacists to be trusted and dispense medication accurately through accurate pharmaceutical calculations.
In the last decade, there have been major advances in applications of mathematics in industrial pharmacy and pharmacokinetics.
The field of institutional pharmacy is where the majority of mathematics applications have been developed.
The practice of institutional pharmacy is the pharmacy of diagnosis and treatment for patients in long-term care facilities.
The modern technician can use mathematics to perform a variety of tasks, including compounding sterile products and chemotherapy calculations.
The pharmacy technician has made a significant improvement in the delivery of nutritional interventions to patients with different needs. They are now capable of handling precipitation concerns, micronutrients and macronutrients, calculation of calorie requirements for patients, and determination of PN volumes.
Aliquot is another area in which pharmaceutical calculations are making progress.
A aliquot refers to a small amount of medication that can be used for many purposes.
These include the calculation of minimum measurable quantities (MMQ), desensitisation therapies, and calculation of solids below MMQ (Hyma 2017,).
Pharmacological mathematics and its application to pharmacy.
Langley, C. and Perrie Y. (2014)
Mathematics Skills for Pharmacy: Unlocking Pharmaceutical Calculations.
Oxford University Press.
Prasacu (I.) and Mircioiu (C.), 2013.
Elements of Mathematics Used in Pharmaceutical Sciences.
Rees J.A. Smith, I., and Watson, J. (2015).
Introduction to pharmaceutical calculations.