PHAR10010 Communication Skills For Pharmacy

Question:

Discuss the benefits and risks of using Ibuprofen for an analgesic.

Answer:

Ibuprofen (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAIDs) is an analgesic analgesic.

Doses exceeding 1200mg daily do not provide additional pain relief and can cause gastrointestinal toxicities or cardiovascular risk (Derry and al. 2012).

These drugs can be used to treat mild to moderate pain, fever, and inflammation.

It can be used to ease mild to moderate pain like toothache, migraine, period pain, or arthritis pain (Nice.org.uk 2017).

Ibuprofen reduces inflammation and pain by decreasing hormones.

Ibuprofen is a great option for runners, as it can be used to treat muscle soreness and tendonitis, as well as joint pain.

Ibuprofen is more effective than Aspirin when you have fever.

Ibuprofen is non-addictive and has fewer side effects than other NSAIDs.

Usually, ibuprofen purchased over-the-counter comes in capsules and tablets of 200mg (Nice.org.uk 2017, 2017).

Children and adults over 12 years old can take one to two tablets every four to six hour if they need it.

Ibuprofen intravenously can be administered in liquid form in certain circumstances (Derry et. al. 2012).

A dose of 800 mg can be used for acute pain.

The drug’s analgesic limit is between 400 and 1200 mg per dose.

For inflammation, high doses up to 2400 mg may be administered without additional pain relief (Derry et. al. 2012).

Doses exceeding 1200mg daily do not provide pain relief, but can cause gastrointestinal toxicities or cardiovascular risk (Derry and al.2012).

The body produces prostaglandin, which is a mediator of sensations such as pain fever and inflammation.

Prostaglandin’s antipyretic effects are due to vasodilatation in the hypothalamus, increased peripheral blood flow, and heat dissipation (Derry.2012).

Ibuprofen is an inhibitor that does not select the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is responsible for the production of prostaglandins through the arachidonic route.

COX is responsible for the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin. Ibuprofen inhibits COX, which in turn reduces prostaglandin levels (Rainsford 2016,).

Ibuprofen can cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness and constipation.

Ibuprofen should be avoided by anyone who is about to have a coronary artery bypass graft.

Patients with severe anaemia, congestive heart disease, severe anaemia, Systemic Lupus Erymatous (SLE), or bleeding should consult a doctor before taking Ibuprofen (Nice.org.uk 2017).

Ibuprofen should not be taken by older people.

Over-the-counter NSAIDs can cause sleepiness and loss of balance in older people, which could increase the likelihood of falling (Derry, et al. 2012).

It is best to avoid alcohol consumption as it can increase stomach bleeding and damage the kidneys (Rainsford 2016,).

There are some evidences that high doses of Ibuprofen in the first month of pregnancy increase the likelihood of miscarriage (Nice.org.uk 2017).

Ibuprofen can cross react with anti-rheumatic drugs, such as apixaban and apixaban.

Ibuprofen can react with several blood thinners, including Arixtra, Aspirin, and warfarin (Nice.org.uk 2017, 2017).

Patients taking antidepressant medication such as celexa or paroxetine should not take it (Derry and al., 2017).

The body’s levels of cytokines have been shown to rise, which in turn increases the amount of serotonin. This is possible by increasing the protein level that is required for the creation of the serotonin receptors.

Llorca et. al. (2008) found that painkillers interfere with the production of cytokines.

Ibuprofen can also interact with other NSAIDs, such as celebrex, naprosyn and lodine (Awa et. al. 2012).

There are many drawbacks to Ibuprofen use, but the medicine’s role in relieving pain and fever cannot be ignored.

The doctor will recommend the correct dosage to treat pain and inflammation.

Refer to

Awa K., Satoh H., Hori S., and Sawada Y. (2012).

Journal of clinical pharmacy, therapeutics, 37(4), 469-474.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6.

2008 and Donat F.J.S.

Interactions of ibuprofen with antihypertensive medications: Incidence in dental practice and clinical relevance.

Guidance and guidelines

Aspirin and other drugs.

CRC Press.

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