MED3MSA Medical Science

Table of Contents


Learning Objectives

Demonstrate an understanding of the necessity and application of standard curves when testing unknowns

Discuss the limitations of ELISA, the importance of standards and controls, and the role it plays in diagnostic testing.

Demonstrate an understanding of the interaction between antigens and antibodies that is used in an ELISA.

Demonstrate your ability to distinguish between the information in the results and the discussion.

Present your results in a journal format. Include appropriate labelling, figure legends and text.


ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It is used to evaluate a variety of pathophysiological events that adversely impact the peptides/proteins levels and metabolic homeostasis of human beings.

ELISA intervention helps to track the interaction patterns between antigens and antibodies, which can provide clues about the underlying causes of different disease manifestations (Aydin 2015).

ELISA is a common, widely used diagnostic lab intervention. It uses bovine serum albumin to test the pattern of non-specific binding of antibodies and antigens across a microtiter well.

This could allow for the production of different amounts of ELISA reactants which bind non-specifically, to support a variety of pathophysiological findings (Xiao & Isaacs 2013, 2013).

The ELISA test can be used to identify the infected and non-infected candidates quickly and cost-effectively.

The ELISA test’s results are limited in sensitivity and specificity. They range between 80%-90%. This requires further improvement. Innovative approaches must be explored to modify the ELISA intervention to achieve the desired outcomes (Angkasekwinai et. al., 2014).

PSA Concentrations

Patients with benign or malignant pattern of prostate enlargement will usually need to have their PSA levels evaluated (Ingle and al., 2013).

PSA intervention is most useful for patients who are symptomatic but still have the potential to develop prostate cancer or other life-threatening conditions.

The serum PSA status is monitored in both bound and unbound form.

The PSA lab test measures the unbound and total PSA levels in human serum.

PSA investigation targets patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. This can be caused by haematuria and fever, as well as urinary tract infections.

A steady increase in total PSA is a sign of slow progression of cancer and should be confirmed by prostate biopsy (LTO 2017).

Laboratory evaluation is required to determine the ratio of the bound and unbound PSA. This will allow us to distinguish prostate cancer cases from those with elevated PSA due non-cancerous causes.

PSA intervention is strongly recommended for male age progression.

PSA intervention is required for healthy males between 50 and 70 years. This will evaluate their risk of developing prostate cancer.

A PSA value less than 4ng/ml is indicative of a low chance of developing prostate cancer in the individuals being evaluated.

Patients with a PSA value greater than 10ng/ml have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer or other co-morbidities.

The American Cancer Society considers that 50% of male patients with a PSA value greater than 10ng/ml in a laboratory setting are at risk of developing cancer mechanisms. (LTO, 2017).

Predisposed men are at 25% risk for prostate cancer if their PSA levels range between 4-10ng/ml.

Patients with benign prostate tumours are more likely to have an elevated level of unbound PSA.

The free-bound PSA ratio is the sole basis for prostate biopsy decisions in male patients.

LTO, 2017. The PSA velocity assessment is a measure of the rate of rise in PSA concentrations over time.

PSA levels rise with age, so increased PSA values could also lead to false positive results that may not be accurate in determining the prostate cancer risk for male candidates (LTO 2017, 2017).

The ultrasensitive PSA treatment is used to evaluate the risk of prostate cancer recurrence in male patients with a history of prostate disease or who continue to suffer from the effects of the disease.

Patient A doesn’t require further clinical investigation as his total PSA level of 0.58249ng/ml is below 4ng/ml.

According to his lab analysis, the patient A is not at risk for developing prostate cancer.

However, the PSA levels of patients B and C were respectively measured at 19.65ng/ml/ml and 13.13ng/ml.

These levels are significantly higher than the PSA level of 10ng/ml, which indicates an increased risk for patients B and C of developing prostate cancer.

Patient B and C will have to be evaluated for prostate biopsies. This would involve a clinical correlation with the PSA levels.

Refer to

An Evaluation Study of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Test (ELISA) Using Recombinant protein Pap31 to Detect Antibody Against Bartonella bacilliformis Disease among the Peruvian Population.

Here is a brief history of ELISA and the principles and types. We also share our laboratory experience using ELISA to analyze peptide/protein matrices.

The Diagnostic Efficiency of Serum Prostate SpecificAntigen Levels for Prostatic Enlargements.

Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and Blocking With Bovine Serum Albumin, (BSA) – Not every BSA is the same.

Journal of Immunological Methods. pp.148-50.

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