Leadership In The Practice Of Clinical


Disseminate about the Critical Assessment of Leadership in Clinical Pharmacy.


We will be looking at leadership in clinical pharmacy.

Our clinic is located in an outpatient pharmacy at a Kuwaiti hospital.

Over the years, pharmacists have evolved from simply dispensing drugs to taking responsibility for improving the patient’s outcomes.

Professional pharmaceutical practice is essential because drug use is associated high with mortality and morbidity.

These roles require leadership to ensure that they are performed with the precision and expertise needed.

The hospital’s outpatient pharmacy is located in an urban area.

Total 67 health professionals work in the entire facility.

There are 17 pharmacy staff members. Each department is headed by a member from the hospital board.

As per the patient’s needs, the department has many sub-departments.

Some of these are located in the terminal illness, infectious, maternal and child health, dermatological, invasive surgery, dermatological, and the maternal-child health departments.

On average, the facility sees three hundred patients per day. However, this can vary with disease outbreaks and when there are more than twice as many.

The patient’s condition, prescription from a doctor, and pharmacist contribution will affect the drugs that are issued.

This is a public hospital so the Ministry of Health makes the hiring decisions.

Before any employment is made, pharmacists must be vetted according to their specialization before they are hired.

The job openings are often offered to the most qualified candidates.

Promotions are often based on merit and the directives from the ministry of healthcare.

The head of the department is often the most experienced and has the best track record.

The procedure at the health facility is this: Once a patient has completed the walk I, they are taken to the doctor’s office, where they discuss their health situation.

The doctor will make a diagnosis, and the patient may be sent to the laboratory for additional lab tests.

The doctor will then explain the findings to patients and make a prescription for them.

The doctor will then refer the patient to the appropriate pharmacist, such as a maternal and child health pharmacist.

The pharmacist will then give the prescription to the patient. They will discuss the treatment method in detail.

The pharmacist will discuss with the doctor any changes that may be necessary.

The pharmacist will also inform the patient about the dosage interval, side effects, drug interactions, and what to expect in polypharmacy cases.

The pharmacist will give the patient the drug and sometimes a date for a follow-up.

The patient can now leave the hospital.

The compass of hospital services has evolved from traditional to modern flow as a result technology and advancements in health check fields.

Rosenthal, M. Austin, Z., and Tsuyuki R. T. (2010). Similar to hospitals, pharmacy practice within a hospital setting has changed due to increasing complexity in drug therapy and financial constraints to ensure maximum clinical consequences with cost-effective drug therapy while still ensuring safe use of medication within the health care system.

Today, pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are able to work together to provide safe, effective and steady healing for patients.

Rastegarpanah (2015) says that their roles have evolved from the traditional ones of preparing, compounding, and distributing medications to include more.

Rastegarpanah (2015) explains that these new roles are clinically focused and have resulted in improvements in the treatment of diseases.

Pharmacists now play a greater role in the patient management and recovery process.

These are just a few of the many advances:

According to Ju-Seop kang (2009), therapeutic drug monitoring is the act or process of measuring drug concentrations in body fluids like blood and serum to ensure optimum levels. This allows for better patient responses and helps to prevent drug abuse.

Drug monitoring now includes compliance, efficacy and drug-drug interactions. It also monitors therapy cessation.

Rastegarpanah (2015) says that drug monitoring can only be done effectively if there is good collaboration between nurses, pharmacists, and doctors.

The role of pharmacists in drug monitoring is crucial because they are often more knowledgeable about drug composition and formulation.

The pharmacists can use the information about the systemic drug levels to help doctors decide how to modify the formulation and advise them on changes to the dosage interval or drug regimen.

Rastegarpanah (2015) explains that pharmacists now have the ability to provide drug information to doctors.

Because treatment options are becoming more complex as new drugs are discovered, this is why pharmacists are involved in providing drug information to physicians.

The resistance of microorganisms to old medications is also increasing. This calls for change.

This change must be informed well to avoid any potential harm.

According to Kane & Dasta (J. F. (2003), errors and harms in intensive care patients were significantly reduced when pharmacist input was used.

This is mainly due to the fact that physicians are well-informed.

As Kucukarslan and Nafziger (2013) show, pharmacists are required to share their knowledge in any clinical setting that involves the administration of drugs.

The management, detection, and mitigation of adverse drug effects is also a responsibility for pharmacists.

Edwards, I. R. and Aronson J. K. ((2000).

Adverse drug reactions are often undesirable and harmful side effects that can occur when a drug is used to treat a condition.

Because pharmacists have more information about the drug composition and formula, they are better equipped to spot adverse drug reactions in patients.

Kucukarslan & Nafziger (2013) found that most adverse reactions to drugs can be prevented by providing sufficient or inadequate information.

The number of adverse effects caused by drugs can be significantly reduced if doctors are present during prescribing.

Pharmacists now monitor the nutrition of patients, as nutrition is crucial for ensuring a patient’s recovery.

Rastegarpanah (2015) states that pharmacists determine the nutritional formula based on the amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat in the patient.

These values are then compared to the appropriate values for each patient taking into account their age, weight, and medical condition.

It is important to consider the mechanism of action of any drug that the patient is currently taking. This is done in order to ensure that the right nutrition formula is created.

As Atkinson & Barr (1998) point out, nutrition can affect drug interactions and the mechanism of action, which in turn may interfere with patients’ responses.

When pharmacists are involved, this can be prevented.

Patients should be informed about their medications to ensure that they adhere to the prescribed medication.

Ward, M. M. and Lorig, K. R. (1996) describe how patient education interventions improve patient compliance with the medication.

Proper education will ensure that the patient understands why they take the medication, and what happens if they do not follow the instructions.

Some of the medication equipment, e.g.

If the patient isn’t familiar with how to use inhalers and blood sugar monitoring equipment, they may find it difficult to use them.

The pharmacist is usually the closest to patients and therefore the most qualified to teach them how to follow the drug regiments.

Little, J., & Mark (2013) found that patients who are actively trained and educated by pharmacists have better drug responses and adherence.

The pharmacist has a responsibility to ensure that the pharmacy patient bill is implemented and applied in all health facilities. This includes the 5 rights, which, according to Little, J. & Mark, S. (2013), are the right patient with the right drug, dose, routine, and time.

Because of their interactions with patients and their knowledge, pharmacists play a significant role in achieving this right.

The pharmacist can determine the appropriate dose based on patient information, such as when the patient is at work and where they are at home.

The chances of the patient complying with the medication and feeling respected by the pharmacist are higher. This usually leads to better patient outcomes.

A pharmacist in a hospital can also play a clinical role in narcotic stewardship, especially Opiate Stewardship.

Rastegarpanah M. (2017) says that opiate abuse is a growing concern in healing facilities.

The treatment file for opioid pharmaceuticals is very detailed.

Part of the role of the pharmacist in the doctor’s clinic is to determine treatment for persistent or intense agony after admission, to supervise intense torment during their confirmation and to balance treatment and switch over to oral solutions when the patient leaves the clinic.

Because they are more familiar with the drug mechanisms that can lead to addiction, and how to reverse them, pharmacists are trusted to play this role.

Rastegarpanah M. (2017) states that pharmacists also provide medication management services. These are administrations that improve the outcomes of individual patients. They are usually done in a centre setting.

This includes medicine treatment audits and pharmacotherapy counselings, anticoagulation administration and vaccinations, as well as wellbeing and health programs.

Burns, A.

Burns, A.

The pharmacist and patient have a close relationship that results in better patient care.

The pharmacist’s extensive knowledge of drugs and drug interactions helps them make the best decisions for the patient.

Patients data documentation is also done by pharmacists.

Rastegarpanah M. (2017) states that documentation in the patient’s record is one way human service experts can communicate with each other. It also allows them to archive any information a patient has given.

The patient record must contain information about drug specialists, such as doctor interviews, medication data questions, important medication fixation and their explanation, patient training, and medicate data.

Irving, & MacNeela, P. (2006) emphasize the importance of this documentation, explaining that documentation includes medicalizing, privatizing, and professionalizing treatment.

This new requirement of pharmacists has influenced their training so that they are prepared to meet the changing needs of patients.

To cope with the complex health sector, the leadership of pharmacists has changed to make sure they are properly guided in their new roles.

Many styles and traits of leadership have been observed in the outpatient pharmacy.

These new ways of working were not just practiced by the head, but all the other drug specialists who interacted with patients. They ensure effective leadership.

Fiedler, F. E. and Garcia, J. E. (1987), effective leaders in wellbeing administrations emphasize interminably that high-quality, protected care is the most needed health service.

They ensure that patients’ wishes and needs are not only heard but also considered when making decisions.

They also ensure that staff opinions are taken into account in decision-making.

According to Zaccaro M.A., group pioneers are also called team leaders.

They create a strong sense of community and team leadership according to Zaccaro, M.A.

Gather pioneers make sure there is a lot of activity at gatherings, and that people are fully required to fit.

According to West, and Haward, B.

According to West, & Haward, B.

Leaders must ensure that every member of the organization contributes at least one hour of their work time to review its goals and their execution. This will help to create a climate of vitality. It should be characterized by positive thinking, bunch sufficiency and regular relentlessness, as well as a sense of openness, positivity, perseverance, approachability, and lots of positivity.

The pharmacy department head must be both a strong individual leader and a great leader to guide his team in the right direction.

One way to influence leadership is through culture.

According to Blair, E. (2003), culture is the manner in which activities are carried out within an organization.

Ham (2014) explained that reporting has shown that expanding rivalry, setting targets and creating administrative frameworks are great ways to improve employee service delivery, as well as identifying the necessary changes to make to respond to problems.

Hierarchical societies must be maintained in order to respond to current and future problems.

This survey focuses on the impact of authority in an association on culture.

It is important to show the administration the kind of life we want.

Therefore, the pharmacy chief has an obligation to ensure that his staff embraces the new culture.

Dixon-Woods & West (2014) state that there are five components that will ensure culture and support the effective management of patients.

These five elements are inspirational dreams that can be implemented at all levels. They include clear targets for patients and health facility equipment, as well as training staff, which will ensure improved service delivery.

Leadership is not only about culture. There are other factors that influence leadership, such as the style of leadership.

Some institutions will adopt the transformative style of leadership.

Trofino J. describes transformational organizations.

Trofino, J. (1995), describes an activity that aims to create change in individuals before the social system.

Transformative leadership aims to transform workers into leaders at their stations.

The workers are then included in the decision-making process that affects the whole organization.

Recent research has shown that this form of leadership is the most popular in healthcare settings.

The most convincing hypothesis for controlling social insurance authority is the transformational administration hypothesis.

Wong et. al. (2013) found that the majority of organizations prefer transformative leadership.

Employees were happy with any form of leadership because it made them feel part of the organization, and helped to achieve the company’s goals and objectives.

Its many benefits are the reason for its wide usage.

Transformative leaders work with their staff to identify organizational changes that are needed to adapt to new circumstances. They coordinate the changes by not only giving instructions, but also instilling the change and being the first to implement the changes.

This will ensure that everyone is involved in decision-making and they are more likely to follow the new changes.

Workers will be more willing and able to go the extra mile to achieve their goals.

You will feel more fulfilled when you are part of a team and not someone who is there to do errands.

Munir F. & Carneiro I.G. (2012) also claim that there is a psychological well-being that results in workers who are able to produce maximum output and few health workers leaving the job due to illness.

Some leaders prefer to practice autocratic leadership.

This may be useful in certain situations, but it often causes more harm than good.

Most employees don’t like the fact that their leaders force their decisions down on their subordinates.

De Cremer (2006) says that autocratic leadership must be controlled or the leader will fail to fulfill his obligations.

It is preferable to have a democratic style of leadership.

Alexander, J.

The democratic leader will ensure that he or she gets feedback from his/her subordinates as well as the patients regarding the services offered.

We should have more pioneers in the medical services than we do supervisors.

Administrative tasks include managing a social event or creating a plan that consists of all the components necessary to achieve a goal.

Leadership is the ability to influence others and help them achieve a goal through a process.

Not control and power, but effect and inspiration are what separate pioneers from leaders.

According to Gordon, A., and Taber, T. (2002), a leader is someone who has the ability to lead an organization, in this case, the pharmacy, towards achieving its goals.

He or she will work hand in hand with other workers, ensuring that they are also involved in day-to-day activities.

Leaders also get to learn about the issues their policies face on the ground and can then better plan how to address them.

According to Therrien S. S.(2002), leaders’ physical presence at the ground can motivate their workers to work harder towards achieving their goals.

Managers, on the other hand, will not be able to make themselves available on the ground and will instead coordinate activities from their offices.

This will undoubtedly lead to low performance from the employees.

Managers are not able to meet the employees face-to-face, so the chances of them understanding the needs of their employees is low.

This results in low employee satisfaction, and consequently poor results.

The organizational climate of a health facility is also a responsibility for its leaders.

According to Schneider and Barbera (2014), climate refers to the collective importance that representatives attach to the strategies and practices and techniques they encounter. It also includes the practices they observe getting compensated, upheld, and anticipated.

The departmental leader must ensure that they reward and uphold the best practices, as these will set an example for the other employees.

The best and most professional behavior in an organization is recognized and rewarded. This will encourage the employees to strive for better results and to prove their worth.

McKee & Yule (2010) found that patients are more satisfied with pharmacy staff who encourage good behavior and practice.

Before implementing policies, all leaders who are successful will conduct statistical tests.

This is done to reduce loss and patient complaints in the event that the new policy does not work.

According to Hill, T., & Westbrook (1997), the SWOT test is one of these tests. It is an acronym for strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This is an organized arranging technique that evaluates these four components of an association or venture. A SWOT analysis should be possible for any association, thing or place, industry, or individual.

If no prior analysis has been done, there may be many obstacles to the transition from the old policy to the new one. This could also happen if the management was not wise enough to perform the analysis.

Management failures of new policies or projects can lead to patient death, especially in cases involving health.

These are only a few of the essential traits we expect from leaders at such an important facility.

Others include equity, justice and fairness to all.

We put all this into practice and looked at how the leadership was being implemented at the pharmacy.

We learned from the subordinate staff that there had been an abrupt leadership change a year earlier.

The new leadership is better than the one before.

According to the pharmacist responsible for the maternal and infant health docket, the previous regime was more authoritative than a leading one.

They were rarely seen by the departmental head at their stations of duty.

The former head was also reluctant to interact with patients or other subordinate staff.

Things changed dramatically after the change.

The new head of the department is more focused on transformative leadership.

Because he is a dermatologist, he takes turns to administer medication in the department.

He ensures that he visits each department before the day ends.

He is always available to help in times of overwhelming patient care.

He can help if he is not able to provide the required assistance.

Aiken, & Aungsuroch (2011) state that the higher the worker satisfaction, the higher the patient satisfaction.

Two weekly meetings are now held every week by the new departmental, where staff can present their challenges over the last few days.

Here, all challenges are discussed and resolved.

He encourages sub-departments to meet every once in a while to review their operations.

This was not possible under the old leadership system.

The new leader advocates for pharmacists at board meetings.

He makes sure that adequate budget is allocated and that pharmacists have the right equipment to support their changing roles.

Their working hours have been changed to accommodate patients. They also shift their meals.

This has just been possible with the new system.

The pharmacists also hold an annual party at which the best hospital staff are recognized. Every employee goes home with a reward at the end.

There are still issues with staffing.

According to most pharmacists that we spoke to, they believe things will improve under the new management.

These were our findings.

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