CAM202A WHM Materia Medica

Question:

Write a report on herbal medicine

Answer:

Introduction

Laxatives has been chosen as the action category for this report.

Three herbs would be considered: Senna Alexandrina Frangula Purshiana, Rheum Palmatum. A comparison and contrast would be the focus of the report.

Part of the medicinally active plant – The dried leaves and fruits are used to treat ailments.

Active constituents – These active ingredients are Senna glycosides and steroisomers from Sennoside A or B.

These are glycosides of an anthrone molecule that bind to one another in pairs.

The other bioactive molecules include Emodin and Aloe-emodin as well as Flavonoids, Flavonoids, and Napthalene (Ajayi et. al., 2014).

Secondary herbal actions and mechanisms for action- The drug works by activating the immune cells of the colon.

Senna products have pro-motility properties through two mechanisms.

Senna products have stool softening properties. They modify the intestinal contractions to favor peristalsis. Inducing excess electrolyte secretion into the colon increases the colon’s water content.

It can be used for therapeutic purposes.

It is an effective drug that clears the bowels. Due to its action ability, it can be used before a colonoscopy.

It also acts as a fungicide.

Safety issues: Contra-indications, cautions, interactions. If this herb is accidentally consumed by infants it can cause severe side effects like diaper rash.

Rarely, there are gastrointestinal cramps.

Ingestion of food for a prolonged period can cause electrolyte imbalance and protein and blood levels to rise in the urine.

Preparation – The herb can be prepared in either chopped or powdered form.

It can also be used to make herbal teas (Tomlinson and Akerele 2015).

Dosage guidelines – The lowest dose is required to achieve the desired effect.

Comfortable, sost-fromed stool is an indication of this.

This is a standardised 1-2 gm of powdered extract that contains 10-30 mg active Sennosides.

Part of the medicinally active plant – The bark is used as an effective laxative.

Active constituents – The main constituens responsible for medicinal action are Emodin and the hydroxyanthracene glycosides.

Secondary herbal actions and mechanisms for action- There are many quinoid substances found in the bark.

The herbal ation of hydroxyanthracene glycosides is through their ability to act as stimulant laxatives.

These stimulant effects stimulate the colon’s peristalsis.

This causes peristalsis by inhibiting the absorption electrolytes or water in the large intestinale.

This causes an increase in pressure and volume.

Therapeutic uses- The primary use of the herb for this purpose is to lax.

A few studies have demonstrated the anti-cancer properties of the drug (Cirillo and Capasso 2015).

Safety issues: Contra-indications, cautions and interactions. The herb should be used for only a few days.

This drug can have adverse effects on infants, so pregnant women and breastfeeding women should not consume it.

This drug is not recommended for people suffering from Crohn’s disease or irritable bowel syndrome.

Preparation – After the bark has been removed from the tree it must be aged for at least one year before being ready for use.

Bark that has been freshly cut can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting.

If drying is urgent, it is best to dry the bark at low temperatures for several hours.

Dosage recommendations: The plant can be taken in a 1 to 3 gram dried bark or 1-2.5 g powdered bark (Van Wyk & Wink 2017, 2017).

Part of the plant that is medicinally active – The root can be used for medicinal purposes.

Active constituents – The roots have anthraquinone and dianthrone glycosides that act as laxatives.

They also contain fatty acids, fructose and glucose, as well as starch.

Secondary herbal actions and mechanisms- The herb increases peristalsis and inhibits water absorption.

Therapeutic uses- The root of this plant can be used to treat stomach problems such as diarrhea and dysentery, and for relieving severe constipation.

It can also be used to treat edema or fevers.

Its astringent properties and its ability to act as a laxative are two of the reasons this herb is so popular.

Its antibacterial properties make it an effective medicine for hypertension, shringles and burn, as well as conjunctivitis, swelling gum, mouth sores, burn, burn, appendicitis, burning, burn, conjunctivitis, and other ailments.

Safety issues: Contra-indications, cautions and interactions. If the drug is taken in large doses, it can cause poisonous effects.

The oxalic acids crystals pose health risks.

This drug should not be used by patients with kidney disease, arthritis, intestinal obstruction, or inflammatory bowel diseases.

Pregnant women should avoid this drug.

Negative effects include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, gripping, nausea, vomiting, hypertrophy and hypertrophy.

Preparation – When the plant is approximately ten years old, the rhizomes are removed.

The crown and lateral roots must be removed.

Once the bark has been removed, the root must be cut into pieces and dried.

Dosage recommendations: 1-6g/day dried root/rhizome, or 2-12mL/day 1:2 fluid extract (Chevallier 2016, 2016).

Refer to

Cassia sieberiana, Senna obtusifolia have laxative properties.

African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 11(4), 43-47.

Encyclopedia of herbal medicine.

An overview of constipation and botanical remedies.

Phytotherapy Research 29(10), 1488-1493.

Optimizing In-Silico UHPLC Method Optimization For Aglycones in Herbal Laxatives Aloe Barbadensis Mill., Cassia Angustifolia Vahl Pods Rhamnus frangula L. Bark Rhamnus purshianus DC.

Bark, Rheum palmatum L. Roots.

(2015). Medicinal plants and their importance in biodiversity and health.

University of Pennsylvania Press.

(Ed.) Medicinal plants around the world.

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