BIOL 2P94 Plant Biology

Question:

Include the name of the hormone, its source and the effects it has on the plant. Also include the movement and whereabouts of the hormone.

In your introduction, include references that use the year and name.

For each statistical test, provide null hypotheses (8-way ANOVA).

Use any stats program to perform a statistical analysis of the change in height and number of leaf pairs among the different hormone treatments.

ANOVA output will include the means and standard errors of height and number leaf pairs.

You will need to create 2 bar graphs with standard error bars.

Write down a few paragraphs that describe the trends and visual observations from the greenhouse.

Discuss the significance of the data. Then, make a decision about the Null (reject/fail to reject) for each test.

Compare your results with other peer-reviewed findings to discuss what they mean and what you expected.

In your discussion, include proper references (Author, Year).

Answer:

Introduction

This study used pea (Pisumsativum) as the plant.

This crop has been studied ever since the time of Gregor Mendel (Bateson William and Gregor).

The pods are green and contain dried seeds.

These seeds are highly sought after as they can be used as both a vegetable and a pulse.

This crop is very nutritious and rich in vitamins A, K, proteins, carbohydrates, phosphorous, and calcium.

This pea crop is developed using three hormones.

These hormones are Gibberellic Acid (GA), Indole Acetic Acid(IAA), and Kinetin.

Gibberellic Acid is a hormone that is found in both plants and fungi.

This acid aids in the growth of plants (Iqbal Muhammad and Muhammad).

Indole Acetic Acid, a plant hormone, is also found in the tips and young leaves.

IAA signals the presence of essential molecules required for the coordination of the major components of plants’ growth and development (Tabatabaei, et al.).

Kinetin, which is also a form of plant hormone, is one type of cytokinin.

This hormone promotes the cell division of plants (Bandivadekar and al.

Results

ANOVA testing is required to determine the differences in heights between pea seedlings treated with the three hormones Indole Acetic, Kinetin, and Gibberellic acids.

ANOVA testing is also required to determine the standard error in the mean height increase of pea seedlings following application of the three hormones Indole Acetic, Kinetin, and Gibberellic acids.

The following hypothesis can be used to perform ANOVA tests:

Null Hypothesis (H01),: There is no significant difference in the height of plants when different hormones are used for leaf treatment.

Alternate Hypothesis (1HA1): There are significant differences in the heights of plants depending on how different hormones are applied to leaf treatment.

Table 1 and 2 show the results of the ANOVA test on the hypothesis H01.

Table 1: Summary of the mean height increase after leaf treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Table 2: ANOVA results for height increase after leaf treatment

Source of Variation

df

F

F crit

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

Figure 1 shows that gibberellin is applied to pea seedlings’ leaf treatment. This graph clearly illustrates this.

Null Hypothesis (H02),: There is no significant difference in the height of plants when different hormones are applied to root treatment.

Alternate Hypothesis (2HA2): There are significant differences in the heights of plants depending on whether different hormones have been applied to root treatment.

Table 3 and 4 show the results of the ANOVA test on the hypothesis H02.

Table 3: Summary of the mean height increase after root treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Table 4: ANOVA results for the mean height increase after root treatment

Source of Variation

df

F

F crit

Intergroups

Within Groups

Total

Null Hypothesis (H03),: There is no difference in the mean number of leaf pairs between plants when different hormones are applied to leaf treatment.

Alternate Hypothesis (3HA3): There are significant differences in the mean number of leaf pairs for different hormones.

Table 5 and 6 show the results of the ANOVA test on the hypothesis H03.

Table 5: Summary of the mean increase in leaf pairs following leaf treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Table 6: ANOVA results for the mean increase in leaf pairs following leaf treatment

Source of Variation

df

F

F crit

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

Null Hypothesis H04: The number of leaf pairs in plants is not significantly different after root treatment with different hormones.

Alternate Hypothesis (4HA4): The number of leaf pairs in plants is not significantly different after treatment with hormones.

Table 7 and 8 show the results of the ANOVA test on the hypothesis H04.

Table 7: Summary of the mean increase in leaf pairs following root treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Table 8: ANOVA results for the mean increase in leaf pairs following root treatment

Source of Variation

df

F

F crit

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

Figure 4 shows that all three hormones as well as water are equally important in increasing the number of leaf pair after root treatment.

This type of treatment is not worth the importance of any one hormone.

Discussion

To test the above-mentioned hypothesis, ANOVA was run.

Tables 1 and 2 show the ANOVA test results for the hypothesis H01.

Table 2 shows that the p value for the first hypothesis H01 is 0.000. This is lower than the level (0.05 at 95 percent confidence interval).

The null hypothesis (H01), therefore, is rejected.

It can therefore be concluded that there is no difference in the mean heights for different leaf-treatment hormones.

Table 4 shows that the p value of 0.058 is higher than the level (0.05 at 95 percent confidence interval).

The null hypothesis (H02), is therefore accepted.

It can thus be concluded that the average height increase is affected by different hormones and water when root treatment is used.

Table 6 shows that the p value of 0.000 is lower than the level (0.05 at 95 percent confidence interval)

The null hypothesis (H03), is therefore rejected.

It can thus be concluded that the average increase in leaf pairs in plants after application of different hormones and water is the same regardless of leaf treatment.

Table 8 shows that the p value of 0.315 is higher than the level (0.05 at 95 percent confidence interval).

The null hypothesis (H04), is therefore accepted.

It can thus be concluded that the average increase in leaf pairs in plants after application of different hormones and water shows significant differences depending on root treatment.

It is therefore important to select hormones and water for root treatment because different hormones have different growth rates.

Leaf treatment is different. Different hormones can be applied, but they do not have a significant effect on growth.

Method and Materials

Cairn’s greenhouse has used distilled water and the hormones Indole Acetic Acid (Giberellic acid), Kinetin, to treat 15-day-old pea seedlings.

Before and after application of hormones, the height and number of leaf pairs of each plant were measured. The same was true for the week following the application.

Refer to

“Use Of Plant Auxins Produced By Bacteria in Plant Titil Culture and Seed Pre-treatment; A Possibility to Replace Synthetic Auxins.”

Bateson, William and Gregor Mendel.

Mendel’s principles on heredity.

“Gibberellic Acid Mediated Induction of Salt Tolerance in Wheat Plants: Growth, Ionic Partitioning, Photosynthesis, Yield and Hormonal Homeostasis.”

Environmental and Experimental Botany, 86 (2013): 75-85.

Tabatabaei, Samira, et al.

Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 14.1 (2016), 0802.

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